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Scala Werder VideoeSport4Clubs (Part 2) Those variables will be available even after the enclosing function returns, and unlike in the case of Java's anonymous inner classes do not need to be are Teen Serien share as final. Article source generic types supported by default Case classes functionality extended. Location and contact Eisenbahnstr. In practice, some static type declarations are included for the sake of code clarity. Scala in Depth.
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Updating list Reviewed December 28, Google Translation. Date of visit: December Limitations in Java bytecode complicate tail call optimization on the JVM.
In general, a function that calls itself with a tail call can be optimized, but mutually recursive functions cannot.
Trampolines have been suggested as a workaround. TailCalls since Scala 2. A function may optionally be annotated with tailrec , in which case it will not compile unless it is tail recursive.
Scala has built-in support for pattern matching , which can be thought of as a more sophisticated, extensible version of a switch statement , where arbitrary data types can be matched rather than just simple types like integers, booleans and strings , including arbitrary nesting.
A special type of class known as a case class is provided, which includes automatic support for pattern matching and can be used to model the algebraic data types used in many functional programming languages.
From the perspective of Scala, a case class is simply a normal class for which the compiler automatically adds certain behaviors that could also be provided manually, e.
An example of a definition of the quicksort algorithm using pattern matching is this:. The idea here is that we partition a list into the elements less than a pivot and the elements not less, recursively sort each part, and paste the results together with the pivot in between.
This uses the same divide-and-conquer strategy of mergesort and other fast sorting algorithms. The match operator is used to do pattern matching on the object stored in list.
Each case expression is tried in turn to see if it will match, and the first match determines the result.
In this case, the associated code will have access to a local variable named pivot holding the head of the list, and another variable tail holding the tail of the list.
Note that these variables are read-only, and are semantically very similar to variable bindings established using the let operator in Lisp and Scheme.
Pattern matching also happens in local variable declarations. In this case, the return value of the call to tail. Tuples differ from other types of containers, e.
Pattern matching is the easiest way of fetching the two parts of the tuple. The list operators :: which adds an element onto the beginning of a list, similar to cons in Lisp and Scheme and which appends two lists together, similar to append in Lisp and Scheme both appear.
Despite appearances, there is nothing "built-in" about either of these operators. As specified above, any string of symbols can serve as function name, and a method applied to an object can be written " infix "-style without the period or parentheses.
The line above as written:. Methods that end with a colon are right-associative and bind to the object to the right.
In the pattern-matching example above, the body of the match operator is a partial function , which consists of a series of case expressions, with the first matching expression prevailing, similar to the body of a switch statement.
Partial functions are also used in the exception-handling portion of a try statement:. Finally, a partial function can be used alone, and the result of calling it is equivalent to doing a match over it.
For example, the prior code for quicksort can be written thus:. Here a read-only variable is declared whose type is a function from lists of integers to lists of integers, and bind it to a partial function.
Note that the single parameter of the partial function is never explicitly declared or named. However, we can still call this variable exactly as if it were a normal function:.
Scala is a pure object-oriented language in the sense that every value is an object. Data types and behaviors of objects are described by classes and traits.
Class abstractions are extended by subclassing and by a flexible mixin -based composition mechanism to avoid the problems of multiple inheritance.
Traits are Scala's replacement for Java's interfaces. Interfaces in Java versions under 8 are highly restricted, able only to contain abstract function declarations.
This has led to criticism that providing convenience methods in interfaces is awkward the same methods must be reimplemented in every implementation , and extending a published interface in a backwards-compatible way is impossible.
Traits are similar to mixin classes in that they have nearly all the power of a regular abstract class, lacking only class parameters Scala's equivalent to Java's constructor parameters , since traits are always mixed in with a class.
The super operator behaves specially in traits, allowing traits to be chained using composition in addition to inheritance.
The following example is a simple window system:. In other words, the call to draw first executed the code in TitleDecoration the last trait mixed in , then through the super calls threaded back through the other mixed-in traits and eventually to the code in Window , even though none of the traits inherited from one another.
This is similar to the decorator pattern , but is more concise and less error-prone, as it doesn't require explicitly encapsulating the parent window, explicitly forwarding functions whose implementation isn't changed, or relying on run-time initialization of entity relationships.
In other languages, a similar effect could be achieved at compile-time with a long linear chain of implementation inheritance , but with the disadvantage compared to Scala that one linear inheritance chain would have to be declared for each possible combination of the mix-ins.
Scala is equipped with an expressive static type system that mostly enforces the safe and coherent use of abstractions.
The type system is, however, not sound. Scala is able to infer types by usage. This makes most static type declarations optional.
Static types need not be explicitly declared unless a compiler error indicates the need. In practice, some static type declarations are included for the sake of code clarity.
A common technique in Scala, known as "enrich my library"  originally termed as "pimp my library" by Martin Odersky in ;  though concerns were raised about this phrasing due to its negative connotation  and immaturity  , allows new methods to be used as if they were added to existing types.
This is similar to the C concept of extension methods but more powerful, because the technique is not limited to adding methods and can, for instance, be used to implement new interfaces.
In Scala, this technique involves declaring an implicit conversion from the type "receiving" the method to a new type typically, a class that wraps the original type and provides the additional method.
If a method cannot be found for a given type, the compiler automatically searches for any applicable implicit conversions to types that provide the method in question.
This technique allows new methods to be added to an existing class using an add-on library such that only code that imports the add-on library gets the new functionality, and all other code is unaffected.
The following example shows the enrichment of type Int with methods isEven and isOdd :. Importing the members of MyExtensions brings the implicit conversion to extension class IntPredicates into scope.
Scala's standard library includes support for the actor model , in addition to the standard Java concurrency APIs. Lightbend Inc.
Akka actors may be distributed or combined with software transactional memory transactors. An Actor is like a thread instance with a mailbox.
It can be created by system. Scala also comes with built-in support for data-parallel programming in the form of Parallel Collections  integrated into its Standard Library since version 2.
The following example shows how to use Parallel Collections to improve performance. Besides actor support and data-parallelism, Scala also supports asynchronous programming with Futures and Promises, software transactional memory, and event streams.
The most well-known open-source cluster-computing solution written in Scala is Apache Spark. Additionally, Apache Kafka , the publish—subscribe message queue popular with Spark and other stream processing technologies, is written in Scala.
There are several ways to test code in Scala. ScalaTest supports multiple testing styles and can integrate with Java-based testing frameworks.
Scala is often compared with Groovy and Clojure , two other programming languages also using the JVM. Substantial differences between these languages are found in the type system, in the extent to which each language supports object-oriented and functional programming, and in the similarity of their syntax to the syntax of Java.
Scala is statically typed , while both Groovy and Clojure are dynamically typed. This makes the type system more complex and difficult to understand but allows almost all  type errors to be caught at compile-time and can result in significantly faster execution.
By contrast, dynamic typing requires more testing to ensure program correctness and is generally slower in order to allow greater programming flexibility and simplicity.
Regarding speed differences, current versions of Groovy and Clojure allow for optional type annotations to help programs avoid the overhead of dynamic typing in cases where types are practically static.
This overhead is further reduced when using recent versions of the JVM, which has been enhanced with an invoke dynamic instruction for methods that are defined with dynamically typed arguments.
These advances reduce the speed gap between static and dynamic typing, although a statically typed language, like Scala, is still the preferred choice when execution efficiency is very important.
Regarding programming paradigms, Scala inherits the object-oriented model of Java and extends it in various ways.
Groovy, while also strongly object-oriented, is more focused in reducing verbosity. In Clojure, object-oriented programming is deemphasised with functional programming being the main strength of the language.
Scala also has many functional programming facilities, including features found in advanced functional languages like Haskell , and tries to be agnostic between the two paradigms, letting the developer choose between the two paradigms or, more frequently, some combination thereof.
Regarding syntax similarity with Java, Scala inherits much of Java's syntax, as is the case with Groovy. Clojure on the other hand follows the Lisp syntax, which is different in both appearance and philosophy.
However, learning Scala is also considered difficult because of its many advanced features. This is not the case with Groovy, despite its also being a feature-rich language, mainly because it was designed to be mainly a scripting language.
As of [update] , all JVM-based languages Clojure, Groovy, Kotlin, Scala are significantly less popular than the original Java language, which is usually ranked first or second,   and which is also simultaneously evolving over time.
The Popularity of Programming Language Index,  which tracks searches for language tutorials, ranked Scala 15th in April with a small downward trend.
The TIOBE index  of programming language popularity employs internet search engine rankings and similar publication-counting to determine language popularity.
In this ranking Scala is ahead of some functional languages like Haskell 42nd , Erlang , but below other languages like Swift 15th , Perl 16th , Go 19th and Clojure 30th.
The ThoughtWorks Technology Radar, which is an opinion based biannual report of a group of senior technologists,  recommended Scala adoption in its languages and frameworks category in However, in its report, the Rankings noted a drop of Scala's rank for the third time in a row, questioning "how much of the available oxygen for Scala is consumed by Kotlin as the latter continues to rocket up these rankings".
In the edition of the "State of Java" survey,  which collected data from developers on various Java-related topics, Scala places third in terms of usage of alternative languages on the JVM.
Compared to the last year's edition of the survey, Scala's usage among alternative JVM languages fell by almost a quarter from From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the music scale creation software, see Scala software. General-purpose programming language. Type in expressions for evaluation.
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Free and open-source software portal Computer programming portal. See also: Category:Free software programmed in Scala. Retrieved Retrieved — via GitHub.
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Bibcode : arXiv Retrieved 15 April The compiler will then eliminate actual instantiations and generate static methods instead, allowing extension methods to have virtually no performance overhead.
Archived from the original on Technology Review. Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 16 July Archived from the original on 13 January Coursera Engineering.
Jarrod Nettles. Alvin Alexander. Heise Online. Dobb's Journal. Horie O'Reilly Media. Event occurs at Retrieved 8 March What I would have done differently four years ago is use Java and not used Scala as part of this rewrite.
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